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OSTEP-notes-concurrency-chap29-to-31

蚌埠住了捏
2023-06-04 / 0 评论 / 0 点赞 / 305 阅读 / 1,106 字

Lock-based Concurrent Data Structures

Adding locks to a data structure to make it usable by threads makes the structure thread safe. Of course, exactly how such locks are added determines both the correctness and performance of the data structure.

// basic node structure
typedef struct {
    int key;
    struct __node_t *next;
} node_t;

// basic list structure (one used per list)
typedef struct {
    node_t *head;
    pthread_mutex_t lock;
} list_t;

void List_Init(list_t *L) {
    L->head = NULL;
    pthread_mutex_init(&L->lock, NULL);
}

int List_Insert(list_t *L, int key) {
    pthread_mutex_lock(&L->lock);
    node_t *new = malloc(sizeof(node_t));
    if (new == NULL) {
        perror("malloc");
        pthread_mutex_unlock(&L->lock);
        return -1; // fail
    }
    new->key = key;
    new->next = L->head;
    L->head = new;
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&L->lock);
    return 0; // success
}

int List_Lookup(list_t *L, int key) {
    pthread_mutex_lock(&L->lock);
    node_t *curr = L->head;
    while (curr) {
        if (curr->key == key) {
            pthread_mutex_unlock(&L->lock);
            return 0; // success
        }
        curr = curr->next;
    }
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&L->lock);
    return -1; // failure
}

Condition Variables

To wait for a condition to become true, a thread can make use of what is known as a condition variable.

  • A condition variable is an explicit queue that threads can put themselves on when some state of execution (i.e., some condition) is not as desired (by waiting on the condition) .

Some other thread, when it changes said state, can then wake one (or more) of those waiting threads and thus allow them to continue (by signaling on the condition).

A condition variable has two operations associated with it: wait() and signal(). The wait() call is executed when a thread wishes to put itself to sleep; the signal() call is executed when a thread has changed something in the program and thus wants to wake a sleeping thread waiting on this condition.

Parent waits for child to complete.

int done = 0;
pthread_mutex_t m = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;
pthread_cond_t c = PTHREAD_COND_INITIALIZER;

void thr_exit() {
    pthread_mutex_lock(&m);
    done = 1;
    pthread_cond_signal(&c);
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&m);
}

void *child(void *arg) {
    printf("child\n");
    thr_exit();
    return NULL;
}

void thr_join() {
    pthread_mutex_lock(&m);
    while (done == 0)
        pthread_cond_wait(&c, &m);
    pthread_mutex_unlock(&m);
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    printf("parent: begin\n");
    pthread_t p;
    pthread_create(&p, NULL, child, NULL);
    thr_join();
    printf("parent: end\n");
    return 0;
}

Producer/Consumer

cond_t empty, fill;
mutex_t mutex;

void *producer(void *arg) {
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < loops; i++) {
        Pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex); // p1
        while (count == MAX) // p2
            Pthread_cond_wait(&empty, &mutex); // p3
        put(i); // p4
        Pthread_cond_signal(&fill); // p5
        Pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex); // p6
    }
}

void *consumer(void *arg) {
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < loops; i++) {
        Pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex); // c1
        while (count == 0) // c2
            Pthread_cond_wait(&fill, &mutex); // c3
        int tmp = get(); // c4
        Pthread_cond_signal(&empty); // c5
        Pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex); // c6
        printf("%d\n", tmp);
    }
}

Semaphores

A semaphore is an object with an integer value that we can manipulate with two routines; in the POSIX standard, these routines are sem_wait() — acquire and sem_post() — release

We declare a semaphore ‘s’ and initialize it to the value 1 by passing 1 in as the third argument. The second argument to sem_init() will be set to 0 in all of the examples we’ll see; this indicates that the semaphore is shared between threads in the same process. See the man page for details on other usages of semaphores (namely, how they can be used to synchronize access across different processes), which require a different value for that second argument.

#include <semaphore.h>

sem_t s;
sem_init(&s, 0, 1);

One could view semaphores as a generalization of locks and condition variables; however, is such a generalization needed? Be careful with your choice.

Higher flexibility

Can allow more than one threads to enter the critical section.

Use cases:

  • Binary Semaphores (Locks)
  • Semaphores For Ordering (parent waits for children)
  • The Producer/Consumer (Bounded Buffer) Problem (multiple producers and consumers)
  • Reader-Writer Locks
  • The Dining Philosophers
  • Thread Throttling

An example: RW lock

typedef struct {
    sem_t lock;        // binary semaphore (basic lock)
    sem_t writelock;   // allow ONE writer/MANY readers
    int readers;       // #readers in critical section
} rwlock_t;

void rwlock_init(rwlock_t *rw) {
    rw->readers = 0;
    sem_init(&rw->lock, 0, 1);
    sem_init(&rw->writelock, 0, 1);
}

void rwlock_acquire_readlock(rwlock_t *rw) {
    sem_wait(&rw->lock);
    rw->readers++;
    if (rw->readers == 1)  // first reader gets writelock
        sem_wait(&rw->writelock);
    sem_post(&rw->lock);
}

void rwlock_release_readlock(rwlock_t *rw) {
    sem_wait(&rw->lock);
    rw->readers--;
    if (rw->readers == 0)  // last reader lets it go
        sem_post(&rw->writelock);
    sem_post(&rw->lock);
}

void rwlock_acquire_writelock(rwlock_t *rw) {
    sem_wait(&rw->writelock);
}

void rwlock_release_writelock(rwlock_t *rw) {
    sem_post(&rw->writelock);
}

How To Implement Semaphores

Implementing “Zemaphores” With Locks And CVs

typedef struct {
    int value;
    pthread_cond_t cond;
    pthread_mutex_t lock;
} Zem_t;

// only one thread can call this
void Zem_init(Zem_t *s, int value) {
    s->value = value;
    Cond_init(&s->cond);
    Mutex_init(&s->lock);
}

void Zem_wait(Zem_t *s) {
    Mutex_lock(&s->lock);
    while (s->value <= 0)
        Cond_wait(&s->cond, &s->lock);
    s->value--;
    Mutex_unlock(&s->lock);
}

void Zem_post(Zem_t *s) {
    Mutex_lock(&s->lock);
    s->value++;
    Cond_signal(&s->cond);
    Mutex_unlock(&s->lock);
}

use it for ordering

Zem_t s;

void *child(void *arg) {
    sleep(4);
    printf("child\n");
    Zem_post(&s); // signal here: child is done
    return NULL;
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    Zem_init(&s, 0); 
    printf("parent: begin\n");
    pthread_t c;
    Pthread_create(&c, NULL, child, NULL);
    Zem_wait(&s); // wait here for child
    printf("parent: end\n");
    return 0;
}
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